Wakely 2022

New book (2024) 'Urban Social Housing' (Patrick Wakely)


Ronaldo Ramirez 1934-2022: an Appreciation (Patrick Wakely)

Ronaldo Ramirez 1934-2022

Ronaldo, a Senior Lecturer in The DPU for 32 years (1974-2006), passed away peacefully on 17 December 2022 at the age of 88.

Wakely 2022

Wakely 2022

New Edition (2021): Vivienda en el Desarrollo Urbano: Experiencia y Aprendizaje (Patrick Wakely)

Spanish language edition of ‘Housing in Developing Cities: Experience and Lessons’ by Patrick Wakely is now available here:

‘Vivienda en el Desarrollo Urbano: Experiencia y Aprendizaje’

New Book (2019): 'Housing in Developing Cities: Experience and Lessons' (Patrick Wakely)


Members of DPU-Associates at event hosted by the DPU on 21 March 2018 to launch, ‘Housing in Developing Cities: Experience & Lessons’ by Patrick Wakely.

Adrian Atkinson 1943-2016: an Appreciation (Patrick Wakely)


ADRIAN ATKINSON AADipl, M.Arch, PhD (1943-2016)

Participatory Urban Housing Strategies: Two Case Studies - Brazil & Sri Lanka (Patrick Wakely)

This paper illustrates Chapter 4 of DPU Working Paper No:163/60: Urban Public Housing Strategies in Developing Countries: Whence and Whither Paradigms, Policies, Programmes and Projects1 that should be read together with it (DPU60 WP163)


Two Case Studies

Sri Lanka Million Houses Programme 1983-89


Rio de Janeiro, Favela Bairro Project 1996-2007

Patrick Wakely


The paper reviews two prominent, but very different, examples of government support to participatory enabling (‘self-help’) approaches to the procurement of affordable urban housing, services and infrastructure by the lowest income groups, both of which are well known to the DPU, which was closely involved with both of them:
    1)The Urban Housing Sub-programme of the Sri Lanka Million Houses Programme (MHP) through the conduct of extensive training with the National Housing Development Authority (NHDA) for the implementation of the sub-programme -1983-89; and
    2) the Rio de Janeiro Favela Bairro programme through two evaluative research projects funded by the UK Department for International Development (DFID) -1999 & 2004.

Informal Settlements in Aleppo, Syria: developing a city-wide policy and implementation strategy (Patrick Wakely)

In 2008, Patrick Wakely started a part-time contract with the GTZ Syrian-German Sustainable Urban Development Programme to help develop a municipal policy and implementation strategy for informal settlements (IS) in Aleppo. This is linked with the development of a broader-based City Development Strategy (CDS) also being assisted by GTZ, (German Agency for Development Co-operation, the implementing agency of the German Ministry for Economic Co-operation), and the Cities Alliance. The early stages of this on-going programme have already raised interesting issues around government, governance, decentralisation and participation in the context of a country in transition to a social market economy and administration at the national, municipal and local levels.

Formalising informal areas in Greater Cairo: management training for senior Governorate officials (P Wakely, B Mumtaz, S Meikle)

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In February 2009, Patrick Wakely, Babar Mumtaz, and Sheilah Meikle conducted a series of workshops on the decentralisation of the planning, management and upgrading of informal settlements for some 40 professionals and technicians from four of the five Governorates of Greater Cairo. They also ran a parallel course of seminars for the staff of the GTZ (German Technical Cooperation) Participatory Development Programme in Urban Areas (PDP) in Egypt. Both events raised interesting issues concerning the implementation of national decentralisation policies and strategies for participation.

Afghanistan urban capacity building strategy (Patrick Wakely)

In March 2007, Patrick Wakely undertook a consultancy for UN-Habitat to advise on building the capacity of the Ministry of Urban Development to Build the Capacity of municipalities in Afghanistan.

Patrick WAKELY

Patrick Wakely is an independent consultant and Professor Emeritus of Urban Development in the University of London. He was a full-time member of the academic staff of the Development Planning Unit (DPU), University College London (UCL)for 28 years and its director for 14 years (1989-2003).

He has held full-time teaching and training appointments in Asia, Africa and Latin America and has undertaken policy advice consultancy, research and training and project and programme evaluation in some 20 developing countries.

Patrick Wakely - publications

Books and chapters in books

Urban Social Housing: Global Health and Climate Change Mitigation and Redress. Routledge/Taylor and Francis Group, New York, USA and London, UK. ISBN 9781032737065
Book Review: 'Upgrading Informal Settlements: Experiences from Asia'. Urban Studies, Sage, Glasgow (Epub ahead of print August 2023. DOI: 10.1177/00420980231190773).
'A shift in planning theory for the post-Covid era of sustainable climate change mitigation and social justice’ Foreword to: Wassenhoven, L, 'Compromise Planning: A Theoretical Approach from a Distant Corner of Europe’,Springer, Berlin, Germany. [See Link]
Vivienda en el Desarrollo Urbano: Experiencia y Aprendizaje, Editorial UTadeo, Bogotá, Colombia. ISBN: 9789587253054. [See Link]
Housing in Developing Cities: Experience and Lessons, Routledge/Taylor and Francis Group, New York, USA and London, UK. ISBN:978-1-138-57208-9. eBook ISBN: 978-1-351-21239-7. [See Link]
Fifty Years of the Community-led Incremental Development Paradigm for Urban Housing and Place-making (with John F.C. Turner), in Min Soo Chin, A. & I.E. Brisson (Eds) Ground Rules for Humanitarian Design, John Wiley & Son Ltd, Chichester, UK
Making Planning Work: a Guide to Approaches and Skills (with Hague, C., Crespin, J., Jasko, C.), ITDG Publishing, London, pp.128, ISBN:1-85339-648-6
Communities and Communication: Building Urban Partnerships (with Riley, E.), ITDG Publishing, London, pp.129, ISBN:1953395996
Territoriality and Spatial Forms (with Mumtaz, B. and Clifford, K.), chapter in The Challenge of Slums: Global Report on Human Settlements, Earthscan, London, pp.79-95, ISBN: 1-84407-037-9
Civil Society in Action, (with Riley, E.), chapter in The Challenge of Slums: Global Report on Human Settlements, Earthscan, London, pp.148-162, ISBN: 1-84407-037-9
The Challenge of Slums: 34 City Case Studies (with Clifford, K., Walker, A., Soave, A., DPU/UN-Habitat, London, ISBN:1-874502-55-2
Implementing the Habitat Agenda: In Search of Urban Sustainability, (ed. with You, N), DPU/DFID/UNCHS, London, pp.196, ISBN: 974502-00-5
National Housing Policies and Strategies: The New Paradigm and Local Government, Institutional Development and Management of the Housing Sector, chapters in The Reconstruction of Palestine, ed Zahlan, A., Kegan Paul, London, 1997.
Where We Have Come From: Historical Perspective of Major Trends (with Aliani, A.) in Living in Asian Cities, ed Overgaard, J., United Nations, New York, pp.1-37, ST/ESCAP/1660. [See Link]
Urban Housing Strategies: Education and Realisation (with Schmetzer, H, and Mumtaz, B K); Pitmans, London, pp.113, ISBN: 273 00445 X
A Primary School Building System for Ghana, chapter in Education in Africa: Research and Action, ed. Jolly, AR; Heinemann/EAPH, Nairobi.


Integrated capacity building for urban governance, planning and management, GIZ 'URBANET' website: http://www.urbanet.info/integrated-capacity-building/
Communication for Sustainable Urban Partnerships, World Bank website: http://www.worldbank.org/urban/symposium2003/docs/papers/wakely.pdf
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DPU HOUSING: Development Planning Unit Record in Urban Housing 1971-2021. DPU Working Paper No.201, UCL, London, UK.
Urban Public Housing Strategies in Developing Countries: Whence and Whither Paradigms, Policies, Programmes and Projects. DPU Working Paper No. 163/60, UCL, London, UK. [See Link]
The Case for Incremental Housing (with E. Riley), in Cities Without Slums. Cities Alliance Policy Research and Working Papers Series No. 1, Washington DC. [See Link]
Informal Settlements in Aleppo: Rapid Profiles of all Informal Settlements in Aleppo. (English and Arabic) (with R. Abdul Wahab, R.) GiZ, Eschborn, Germany.
Land Tenure in Under-Served Settlements in Colombo, Sri Lanka. IDRC Poverty and Environment Report Series No.6, Ottawa, Canada. [See Link]
Housing the Poor in Asian Cities: Low-Income Housing: Quick Guides for Policy Makers No.2. UN-HABITAT/UN ESCAP, Nairobi/Bangkok, pp.42, ISBN:978-92-113-1947-7
Southern Sudan Urban Appraisal Study (with T.Carter, K.Clifford) UNDP, New York, USA.
Capacity Building for Better Cities, (with Peltenburg,M., Davidson,F., Teerlink,H.), IHS/DPU (for UN Habitat II), Rotterdam. [See Link]
The Formulation of National Shelter Strategies: Six Case Studies - Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Philippines, Indonesia, Uganda, Zimbabwe, (with Ramirez, R. and Mumtaz, B) DPU Working Paper No. 57, London.
The Agenda for Urban Shelter and International Co-operation in the 1990s in Meikle, S. & Mumtaz, B (eds) "Successful Shelter Strategies", Overseas Development Administration, London.
Roles, Responsibilities and Capabilities for the Management of Human Settlements: Recent Trends and Future Prospects, (with Safier, M), United Nations Centre for Human Settlements Technical Paper, UNCHS, Nairobi.
Affordable Housing Projects: a Training Manual, 2 vols.(with Mumtaz, B); UNCHS/ UNDP, Nairobi.
International Assistance Strategy for Human Settlements Training in Developing Countries, United Nations Centre for Human Settlements Position Paper, UNCHS, Nairobi.
Housing in Development: Policies, Programmes and Support (ed), DPU Working Paper, No.17, London.

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Published peer-reviewed papers & articles

Sustainable urban housing policies in the era of post-covid climate change mitigation, International Journal of Urban Sustainable Development, Taylor & Francis, Vol.14 ,Issue 1 (online) pp.416-424 [See link]
Sustainable community governance and management of urban housing and local environment, (with S. Martaarachchi) in Town Planning Review, Vol. 92, No. 4, Liverpool University Press, Liverpool, UK. [See link]
Partnership: A Strategic Paradigm for the Production and Management of Affordable Housing and Sustainable Urban Development. in International Journal of Urban Sustainable Development Vol.12, No.1, Taylor & Francis, London, UK. [See Link]
Reflections on urban public housing paradigms, policies, programmers and projects in developing countries. in International Journal of Urban Sustainable Development Vol.8, No.1, Taylor and Francis, Abingdon, UK & New York, USA.
Status, Quality and the Other Trade-off: Towards a New Theory of Urban Residential Location, with Phe, H.H., in Urban Studies, Vol.37, No.1, Glasgow. (Winner of the Donald Robertson Memorial Prize 2000)
The Inclusive City? in Developments, No.10, DFID, London.
Building on the Success of Habitat II, in Third World Planning Review, Vol.18, No.3, Liverpool.
Creating and Responding to Change in Open House International, Vol.21, No.4, Newcastle-upon-Tyne.
Urban Housing: The Need for Public Sector Intervention and International Cooperation in Cities, Vol.6, No.3, London.
The Development of Housing Through the Withdrawal from Construction in Habitat International Vol.12, No.3, London.
Strengthening Local Government by Recognising a Third Tier in Urban Management in Trialog No.19, Darmstadt.
The Devolution of Housing Production: Support and Management in Habitat International Vol.10, No.3, London.
Innovations in Training: The Nairobi Project in Open House International, Vol.11, No.3, Newcastle-upon-Tyne.
The Development of a School: An Account of the Department of Development and Tropical Studies of the Architectural Association, 1953-72 in Habitat International, Vol. 7, No. 5/6, London. [See Link]
Architectural Education in Latin America: Concerns and Conflicts in Architectural Education, No. 2, RIBA Magazines Ltd, London.
An Alternative Planning Education for Conditions of Scarce Technical Resources: A Case Study of the Solomon Islands in Habitat International, Vol. 6, No. 4, London.
The Development of Development Planning in Economic Review, Vol. 6, No. 1, Colombo, April.
An Experimental Educational Extension Service to Schools of Architecture and Physical Planning in Habitat International, Vol. 4, No. 1/2, London.
Attitudes to Urban Planning in Public Administration Overseas: Journal of the Ministry of Overseas Development, Vol. 18, No. 3, London, July.
Housing in Urban Development: An Approach to Professional Education in Architectural Association Quarterly, Vol. 7, No. 3, London, July.
A Building Clinic in Baghdad (with Schmetzer, H. and Mumtaz, B.K.), in Architectural Design, No.6/74, London, June.
Chandigarh Twenty Years Later, (with Schmetzer, H.) in Architectural Design, No. 10/75, London, October.
School Building in the North of Ghana in Journal of the UNESCO Regional School Building Centre for Africa, Khartoum.
Community Building in the Upper Region of Ghana in Ghana Teachers Journal, No. 53, Accra,
Towards Tomorrow: An Impromptu Second Year Project, (with Wilton, G.); in Arena: The Architectural Association Journal, Vol. 82, No. 904, London.
Community Building in the Upper Region of Ghana", (with Mumtaz, K.), in Arena: The Architectural Association Journal, Vol. 82, No. 904, London.
Rural Architecture in Ghana in Der Architekt, Berlin, June.

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Major unpublished reports

Informal Land & Housing Markets in Aleppo (with R. Abdul Wahab). GiZ/Government of Syria, Eschborn, Germany & Ministry of Municipal Administration, Damascus, Syria.
Notes on a Framework for a National Housing Policy for Sri Lanka, (with Jayawardana, C.), United Nations Human Settlements Programme - UN-Habitat, Fukuoka. [See Link]
Southern Sudan Urban Appraisal Study, (with Carter,T., Clifford, K.), United Nations Development Programme - UNDP, New York.
Integration of Social Service Provision for the Urban Poor in Cambodia, Asian Development Bank - ADB.
Communication for Sustainable Urban Livelihoods, (with Riley, E.), DFID KaR Research Report, London
Urban Management Programme Phase IV: Mid-term Evaluation and Forward Looking Assessment, UNDP/UN-Habitat, New York.
Cities Alliance: An Assessment of the First Three Years, (with Harris, N.), Cities Alliance, Washington DC
Lunawa Lake environment improvement Project Community Development and Local Environmental Management, (with Lankatilleke, L., Jayaratne, K.A), UNCHS/JBIC, Sri Lanka.
Analysis of Institutional Arrangements fro the Phnom Penh Urban Poverty Reduction Strategy, UNDP/UN-Habitat.
Training Needs for the Tanzania National Sustainable Cities Programme, (with Mattingly, M), Govt. of Tanazania/ British Council, Dar-es-Salaam.
Urban Development Policy for European Commission Co-operation, (with Davidson, F), European Commission (DGVIII), Brussels.
Report of the evaluation of the Implementation of the Enabling Strategy for Shelter Development Indonesia, UNDP/UNCHS Project INS/94/003.
Urban Management Programme for Asia and the Pacific (UMPAP): India, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Philippines, Malaysia, Terminal Evaluation Report, UNDP, New York.
Support to Municipal Development and Management in the Gaza Middle Area, Palestine, DANIDA Project Document, Copenhagen.
Training Needs and Strategies for Urban Development and Environmental Management in Yemen, Government of Republic of Yemen, German Technical Assistance Service (GTZ), Sana'a.
Support for Preparing National Shelter Strategies: Programme Evaluation (with Ramirez, R. and Mumtaz, B.K.), Finnish International Development Agency (FINNIDA), Helsinki.
Institutional Development for the Shelter Sector of Ghana: Non Conventional Shelter Strategies, (with Mumtaz, B.K.) UNCHS/UNDP, Accra, Ghana.
Galle Urban Project Manual, Eds.1 & 2, (with Mumtaz, B., Robson, D.G.), Government of Sri Lanka and ODA, Colombo, Sri Lanka.
The First Year of the Rural Housing Sub-programme: An Evaluation, (with McNeill, D and Mumtaz, B K), Government of Sri Lanka and World Bank, Colombo.
Draft District Guidelines for the Implementation of the Million Houses Programme in Sri Lanka, (with McNeill, D), Government of Sri Lanka and World Bank, Colombo.
Human Settlements in the South Pacific, (with Mumtaz, B.K.), UNCHS, Nairobi.
Rural Housing in the Coffee Growing Areas of Colombia: Policy Recommendations, UK Overseas Development Administration, London.
A Training Programme for Physical Planning in the Solomon Islands, UNCHS, Nairobi.
Report to the Ministry of Overseas Development and British Council on Housing and Urban Planning, Manpower Needs, and Schools of Architecture and Planning in India, Burma, Thailand, Malaysia and Singapore, DPU, University College London.
Development of a Primary School Building System for Ghana, UST, Kumasi.
Community Building in the Upper Region of Ghana, (with Mumtaz, K. K.), mimeo, UST, Kumasi.
Bui Resettlement Area Survey, (with Mumtaz, K.), mimeo, UST, Kumasi.

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Conference papers

Participatory Planning and Development of Informal Areas – Institutional Settings, Organizational Arrangements & Capacity Building: Some Basic Concepts, presented at the 'International Symposium on Exchanging Global and Egyptian Experiences in Dealing with Informal Areas within the Wider Urban Management Context', GTZ German Technical Cooperation and Ministry of Ecnomic Development, Arab Republic of Egypt, Cairo, October 2008. [See Link]
Communication For Sustainable Urban Partnerships: Perceptions and Prejudices in and between Local Government and Low-Income Urban Communities in Colombo, Nairobi and Rio De Janeiro, (with Riley, R.), World Bank Urban Research Symposium, Washington
Building Capacity for Better Cities (with Peltenburg, M., Davidson, F., Teerlink, H.) for the United Nations Conference on Human Settlements (Habitat II), Istanbul
Where we have come from: Historical Perspective and Major Trends (with Aliani, A), Opening Paper for the Second UN Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) Asia-Pacific Urban Forum, Bangkok.
Local Government, Institutional Development and Management of the Housing Sector, Opening Session Theme Paper for Palestine Economic Council for Development and Reconstruction (PECDAR) conference on The Urban and Rural Reconstruction of Palestine, Amman, Jordan.
The Roles, Responsibilities and Capabilities of Different Levels and Organisations in the Governmental and Non-Governmental Sectors, and Opportunities for Co-operating and Partnership among them at both National and International Levels in the Field of Human Settlements, (with Safier, M.), Theme Paper for the Twelfth Session of the United Nations Commission on Human Settlements, Cartagena, Colombia.
The Development of Housing through the Withdrawal from Construction: Changes in Third World Housing Policies and Programmes, conference on The Future of Urbanisation and the Role of British Aid, ODA, London.
The Devolution of Housing Production - Support and Management, Keynote discussion paper at the International Symposium on the Implementation of a Support Policy for Housing Provision, ODA, London.
International Assistance Strategy for Human Settlements Training in Developing Countries, (with Harris, N.) - Position paper for the United Nations Centre for Human Settlements Steering Committee meeting, Nairobi, Kenya.
Architectural Education in Latin America - Keynote stimulus paper to the Eighth International Forum of the European Association for Architectural Education, Newcastle-upon-Tyne.
Within Five Hundred Metres: Social and Physical Contrasts in a Central Area of Bogotá Latin Roots in the Built Environment Conference of Vieux Carre Commission, New Orleans, USA.
Planeación Urbana: Actitudes (Attitudes to Urban Planning) - Keynote paper to Conference of the Escuela Superior de Administractión Pública (ESAP), Pereira, Colombia.
The Extension Service Concept in Educational Assistance to Developing Countries UK Education for Planning Association Conference, Birmingham.
Long Range Teaching - Second Educational Conference on Planning and Building for Development, Delft, Netherlands.
Educational Buildings in Rural Ghana - Leerang Building in the Developing Countries of the Tropics, Rotterdam/Delft, Netherlands.
Development of a Primary School Building System for Ghana: A Case Study - First Conference of the African Studies Association of the United Kingdom, Brighton.

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Patrick WAKELY


Urban governance and management; the formulation and management of low income housing policies and programmes with emphasis on community-based participatory processes; institutional and organisational capacity building and professional training for urban development and management.

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