Patrick Wakely

Adrian Atkinson 1943-2016: an Appreciation (Patrick Wakely)

                      

ADRIAN ATKINSON AADipl, M.Arch, PhD (1943-2016)


Participatory Urban Housing Strategies: Two Case Studies - Brazil & Sri Lanka (Patrick Wakely)

This paper illustrates Chapter 4 of DPU Working Paper No:163/60: Urban Public Housing Strategies in Developing Countries: Whence and Whither Paradigms, Policies, Programmes and Projects1 that should be read together with it (DPU60 WP163)


PARTICIPATORY URBAN HOUSING STRATEGIES


Two Case Studies


Sri Lanka Million Houses Programme 1983-89

&

Rio de Janeiro, Favela Bairro Project 1996-2007

Patrick Wakely


FOREWORD

The paper reviews two prominent, but very different, examples of government support to participatory enabling (‘self-help’) approaches to the procurement of affordable urban housing, services and infrastructure by the lowest income groups, both of which are well known to the DPU, which was closely involved with both of them:
    1)The Urban Housing Sub-programme of the Sri Lanka Million Houses Programme (MHP) through the conduct of extensive training with the National Housing Development Authority (NHDA) for the implementation of the sub-programme -1983-89; and
    2) the Rio de Janeiro Favela Bairro programme through two evaluative research projects funded by the UK Department for International Development (DFID) -1999 & 2004.

Informal Settlements in Aleppo, Syria: developing a city-wide policy and implementation strategy (Patrick Wakely)

In 2008, Patrick Wakely started a part-time contract with the GTZ Syrian-German Sustainable Urban Development Programme to help develop a municipal policy and implementation strategy for informal settlements (IS) in Aleppo. This is linked with the development of a broader-based City Development Strategy (CDS) also being assisted by GTZ, (German Agency for Development Co-operation, the implementing agency of the German Ministry for Economic Co-operation), and the Cities Alliance. The early stages of this on-going programme have already raised interesting issues around government, governance, decentralisation and participation in the context of a country in transition to a social market economy and administration at the national, municipal and local levels.

Formalising informal areas in Greater Cairo: management training for senior Governorate officials (P Wakely, B Mumtaz, S Meikle)

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In February 2009, Patrick Wakely, Babar Mumtaz, and Sheilah Meikle conducted a series of workshops on the decentralisation of the planning, management and upgrading of informal settlements for some 40 professionals and technicians from four of the five Governorates of Greater Cairo. They also ran a parallel course of seminars for the staff of the GTZ (German Technical Cooperation) Participatory Development Programme in Urban Areas (PDP) in Egypt. Both events raised interesting issues concerning the implementation of national decentralisation policies and strategies for participation.

PW 2009 photo edited

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PW 2009 photo edited


Afghanistan urban capacity building strategy (Patrick Wakely)

In March 2007, Patrick Wakely undertook a consultancy for UN-Habitat to advise on building the capacity of the Ministry of Urban Development to Build the Capacity of municipalities in Afghanistan.

Patrick WAKELY

Patrick Wakely is an independent consultant and Professor Emeritus of Urban Development in the University of London. He was a full-time member of the academic staff of the Development Planning Unit, University College London for 28 years and its Director for 14 years (1989-2003). He has held full-time teaching and training appointments in Asia, Africa and Latin America and has undertaken consultancy, research and training in some 20 developing countries.


Patrick Wakely - publications

Books and chapters in books

2015
Fifty Years of the Community-led Incremental Development Paradigm for Urban Housing and Place-making (with John F.C. Turner), in Min Soo Chin, A. & I.E. Brisson (Eds) Ground Rules for Humanitarian Design, John Wiley & Son Ltd, Chichester, UK
2008
Housing the Poor in Asian Cities: Low-Income Housing: Quick Guides for Policy Makers No.2. UN-HABITAT/UN ESCAP, Nairobi/Bangkok, pp.42, ISBN:978-92-113-1947-7
2006
Making Planning Work: a Guide to Approaches and Skills (with Hague, C., Crespin, J., Jasko, C.), ITDG Publishing, London, pp.128, ISBN:1-85339-648-6
2005
Communities and Communication: Building Urban Partnerships (with Riley, E.), ITDG Publishing, London, pp.129, ISBN:1953395996
2003
Territoriality and Spatial Forms (with Mumtaz, B. and Clifford, K.), chapter in The Challenge of Slums: Global Report on Human Settlements, Earthscan, London, pp.79-95, ISBN: 1-84407-037-9
Civil Society in Action, (with Riley, E.), chapter in The Challenge of Slums: Global Report on Human Settlements, Earthscan, London, pp.148-162, ISBN: 1-84407-037-9
The Challenge of Slums: 34 City Case Studies (with Clifford, K., Walker, A., Soave, A., DPU/UN-Habitat, London, ISBN:1-874502-55-2
2001
Implementing the Habitat Agenda: In Search of Urban Sustainability, (ed. with You, N), DPU/DFID/UNCHS, London, pp.196, ISBN: 974502-00-5
1997
National Housing Policies and Strategies: The New Paradigm and Local Government, Institutional Development and Management of the Housing Sector, chapters in The Reconstruction of Palestine, ed Zahlan, A., Kegan Paul, London, 1997.
1996
Where We Have Come From: A Historical Perspective of Major Trends (with Aliani, A.) in Living in Asian Cities, ed Overgaard, J., United Nations, New York, pp.1-37, ST/ESCAP/1660
1976
Urban Housing Strategies: Education and Realisation (with Schmetzer, H, and Mumtaz, B K); Pitmans, London, pp.113, ISBN: 273 00445 X
1969
A Primary School Building System for Ghana, chapter in Education in Africa: Research and Action, ed. Jolly, AR; Heinemann/EAPH, Nairobi.

Websites

2016
Integrated capacity building for urban governance, planning and management, GIZ 'URBANET' website: http://www.urbanet.info/integrated-capacity-building/
2004
Communication for Sustainable Urban Partnerships, World Bank website: http://www.worldbank.org/urban/symposium2003/docs/papers/wakely.pdf
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Monographs

2014
Urban Public Housing Strategies in Developing Countries: Whence and Whither Paradigms, Policies, Programmes and Projects in DPU60 Working Paper Series: Reflections, No. 163/60, London.
2011
The Case for Incremental Housing (with Riley, E.), Cities Alliance Policy Research and Working Paper Series No.1, Washington DC, USA.
2009
Informal Settlements in Aleppo: Rapid Profiles of all Informal Settlements (with Abdul Wahab, R.) GTZ & Municipality of Aleppo, Syria.
2008
Land Tenure in Under-Served Settlements in Colombo, Sri Lanka. IDRC Urban Poverty & Environment Report Series, pp.34 (English, French), IDRC, Ottawa.
2005
Southern Sudan Urban Appraisal Study (with T.Carter, K.Clifford) UNDP, New York, USA.
1996
Capacity Building for Better Cities, (with Peltenburg,M., Davidson,F., Teerlink,H.), IHS/DPU (for UN Habitat II), Rotterdam.
1992
The Formulation of National Shelter Strategies: Six Case Studies - Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Philippines, Indonesia, Uganda, Zimbabwe, (with Ramirez, R. and Mumtaz, B) DPU Working Paper No. 57, London.
1991
The Agenda for Urban Shelter and International Co-operation in the 1990s in Meikle, S. & Mumtaz, B (eds) "Successful Shelter Strategies", Overseas Development Administration, London.
1990
Roles, Responsibilities and Capabilities for the Management of Human Settlements: Recent Trends and Future Prospects, (with Safier, M), United Nations Centre for Human Settlements Technical Paper, UNCHS, Nairobi.
1987
Affordable Housing Projects: a Training Manual, 2 vols.(with Mumtaz, B); UNCHS/ UNDP, Nairobi.
1986
International Assistance Strategy for Human Settlements Training in Developing Countries, United Nations Centre for Human Settlements Position Paper, UNCHS, Nairobi.
Housing in Development: Policies, Programmes and Support (ed), DPU Working Paper, No.17, London.

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Published peer-reviewed papers & articles

2016
Reflections on Urban Public Housing Paradigms, Policies, Programmes & Projects, in International Journal of Urban Sustainable Development (IJUSD), Vol.8, No.1, Taylor & Francis, London, UK.
2011
The Case for Incremental Housing (with E. Riley), in Cities Without Slums Cities Alliance Policy Research and Working Papers Series No. 1, Washington DC.
http://www.dpu-associates.net/system/files/Case-for-Incremental-Housing.pdf
2000
Status, Quality and the Other Trade-off: Towards a New Theory of Urban Residential Location, with Phe, H.H., in Urban Studies, Vol.37, No.1, Glasgow. (Winner of the Donald Robertson Memorial Prize 2000)
The Inclusive City? in Developments, No.10, DFID, London.
1996
Building on the Success of Habitat II, in Third World Planning Review, Vol.18, No.3, Liverpool.
Creating and Responding to Change in Open House International, Vol.21, No.4, Newcastle-upon-Tyne.
1989
Urban Housing: The Need for Public Sector Intervention and International Cooperation in Cities, Vol.6, No.3, London.
1988
The Development of Housing Through the Withdrawal from Construction in Habitat International Vol.12, No.3, London.
Strengthening Local Government by Recognising a Third Tier in Urban Management in Trialog No.19, Darmstadt.
1986
The Devolution of Housing Production: Support and Management in Habitat International Vol.10, No.3, London.
Innovations in Training: The Nairobi Project in Open House International, Vol.11, No.3, Newcastle-upon-Tyne.
1983
The Development of a School: An Account of the Department of Development and Tropical Studies of the Architectural Association, 1953-72 in Habitat International, Vol. 7, No. 5/6, London.
http://www.dpu-associates.net/system/files/Dev+of+a+School.pdf
Architectural Education in Latin America: Concerns and Conflicts in Architectural Education, No. 2, RIBA Magazines Ltd, London.
1982
An Alternative Planning Education for Conditions of Scarce Technical Resources: A Case Study of the Solomon Islands in Habitat International, Vol. 6, No. 4, London.
1980
The Development of Development Planning in Economic Review, Vol. 6, No. 1, Colombo, April.
1979
An Experimental Educational Extension Service to Schools of Architecture and Physical Planning in Habitat International, Vol. 4, No. 1/2, London.
1978
Attitudes to Urban Planning in Public Administration Overseas: Journal of the Ministry of Overseas Development, Vol. 18, No. 3, London, July.
1975
Housing in Urban Development: An Approach to Professional Education in Architectural Association Quarterly, Vol. 7, No. 3, London, July.
1974
A Building Clinic in Baghdad (with Schmetzer, H. and Mumtaz, B.K.), in Architectural Design, No.6/74, London, June.
1973
Chandigarh Twenty Years Later, (with Schmetzer, H.) in Architectural Design, No. 10/75, London, October.
1967
School Building in the North of Ghana in Journal of the UNESCO Regional School Building Centre for Africa, Khartoum.
Community Building in the Upper Region of Ghana in Ghana Teachers Journal, No. 53, Accra,
1966
Towards Tomorrow: An Impromptu Second Year Project, (with Wilton, G.); in Arena: The Architectural Association Journal, Vol. 82, No. 904, London.
Community Building in the Upper Region of Ghana", (with Mumtaz, K.), in Arena: The Architectural Association Journal, Vol. 82, No. 904, London.
Rural Architecture in Ghana in Der Architekt, Berlin, June.

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Major unpublished reports

2008
Land Tenure in Under-Served Settlements in Colombo Sri Lanka, CMC, Colombo, Sri Lanka & IDRC, Ottawa, Canada.
2005
Southern Sudan Urban Appraisal Study, (with Carter,T., Clifford, K.), United Nations Development Programme - UNDP, New York.
2004
Integration of Social Service Provision for the Urban Poor in Cambodia, Asian Development Bank - ADB.
2003
Communication for Sustainable Urban Livelihoods, (with Riley, E.), DFID KaR Research Report, London
Urban Management Programme Phase IV: Mid-term Evaluation and Forward Looking Assessment, UNDP/UN-Habitat, New York.
2002
Cities Alliance: An Assessment of the First Three Years, (with Harris, N.), Cities Alliance, Washington DC
2001
Lunawa Lake environment improvement Project Community Development and Local Environmental Management, (with Lankatilleke, L., Jayaratne, K.A), UNCHS/JBIC, Sri Lanka.
Analysis of Institutional Arrangements fro the Phnom Penh Urban Poverty Reduction Strategy, UNDP/UN-Habitat.
2000
Training Needs for the Tanzania National Sustainable Cities Programme, (with Mattingly, M), Govt. of Tanazania/ British Council, Dar-es-Salaam.
1998
Urban Development Policy for European Commission Co-operation, (with Davidson, F), European Commission (DGVIII), Brussels.
Report of the evaluation of the Implementation of the Enabling Strategy for Shelter Development Indonesia, UNDP/UNCHS Project INS/94/003.
1997
Urban Management Programme for Asia and the Pacific (UMPAP): India, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Philippines, Malaysia, Terminal Evaluation Report, UNDP, New York.
Support to Municipal Development and Management in the Gaza Middle Area, Palestine, DANIDA Project Document, Copenhagen.
1993
Training Needs and Strategies for Urban Development and Environmental Management in Yemen, Government of Republic of Yemen, German Technical Assistance Service (GTZ), Sana'a.
1992
Support for Preparing National Shelter Strategies: Programme Evaluation (with Ramirez, R. and Mumtaz, B.K.), Finnish International Development Agency (FINNIDA), Helsinki.
1991
Institutional Development for the Shelter Sector of Ghana: Non Conventional Shelter Strategies, (with Mumtaz, B.K.) UNCHS/UNDP, Accra, Ghana.
1987
Galle Urban Project Manual, Eds.1 & 2, (with Mumtaz, B., Robson, D.G.), Government of Sri Lanka and ODA, Colombo, Sri Lanka.
1985
The First Year of the Rural Housing Sub-programme: An Evaluation, (with McNeill, D and Mumtaz, B K), Government of Sri Lanka and World Bank, Colombo.
1984
Draft District Guidelines for the Implementation of the Million Houses Programme in Sri Lanka, (with McNeill, D), Government of Sri Lanka and World Bank, Colombo.
1983
Human Settlements in the South Pacific, (with Mumtaz, B.K.), UNCHS, Nairobi.
Rural Housing in the Coffee Growing Areas of Colombia: Policy Recommendations, UK Overseas Development Administration, London.
1981
A Training Programme for Physical Planning in the Solomon Islands, UNCHS, Nairobi.
1972
Report to the Ministry of Overseas Development and British Council on Housing and Urban Planning, Manpower Needs, and Schools of Architecture and Planning in India, Burma, Thailand, Malaysia and Singapore, DPU, University College London.
1968
Development of a Primary School Building System for Ghana, UST, Kumasi.
1966
Community Building in the Upper Region of Ghana, (with Mumtaz, K. K.), mimeo, UST, Kumasi.
Bui Resettlement Area Survey, (with Mumtaz, K.), mimeo, UST, Kumasi.

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Conference papers

2008
Participatory Planning and Development of Informal Areas – Institutional Settings, Organizational Arrangements & Capacity Building: Some Basic Concepts, presented at the 'International Symposium on Exchanging Global and Egyptian Experiences in Dealing with Informal Areas within the Wider Urban Management Context', GTZ German Technical Cooperation and Ministry of Ecnomic Development, Arab Republic of Egypt, Cairo, October 2008 (see Cairo Paper.pdf)
2003
Communication For Sustainable Urban Partnerships: Perceptions and Prejudices in and between Local Government and Low-Income Urban Communities in Colombo, Nairobi and Rio De Janeiro, (with Riley, R.), World Bank Urban Research Symposium, Washington
1996
Building Capacity for Better Cities (with Peltenburg, M., Davidson, F., Teerlink, H.) for the United Nations Conference on Human Settlements (Habitat II), Istanbul
Where we have come from: Historical Perspective and Major Trends (with Aliani, A), Opening Paper for the Second UN Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) Asia-Pacific Urban Forum, Bangkok.
1995
Local Government, Institutional Development and Management of the Housing Sector, Opening Session Theme Paper for Palestine Economic Council for Development and Reconstruction (PECDAR) conference on The Urban and Rural Reconstruction of Palestine, Amman, Jordan.
1988
The Roles, Responsibilities and Capabilities of Different Levels and Organisations in the Governmental and Non-Governmental Sectors, and Opportunities for Co-operating and Partnership among them at both National and International Levels in the Field of Human Settlements, (with Safier, M.), Theme Paper for the Twelfth Session of the United Nations Commission on Human Settlements, Cartagena, Colombia.
The Development of Housing through the Withdrawal from Construction: Changes in Third World Housing Policies and Programmes, conference on The Future of Urbanisation and the Role of British Aid, ODA, London.
1985
The Devolution of Housing Production - Support and Management, Keynote discussion paper at the International Symposium on the Implementation of a Support Policy for Housing Provision, ODA, London.
International Assistance Strategy for Human Settlements Training in Developing Countries, (with Harris, N.) - Position paper for the United Nations Centre for Human Settlements Steering Committee meeting, Nairobi, Kenya.
1983
Architectural Education in Latin America - Keynote stimulus paper to the Eighth International Forum of the European Association for Architectural Education, Newcastle-upon-Tyne.
1978
Within Five Hundred Metres: Social and Physical Contrasts in a Central Area of Bogotá Latin Roots in the Built Environment Conference of Vieux Carre Commission, New Orleans, USA.
1976
Planeación Urbana: Actitudes (Attitudes to Urban Planning) - Keynote paper to Conference of the Escuela Superior de Administractión Pública (ESAP), Pereira, Colombia.
1972
The Extension Service Concept in Educational Assistance to Developing Countries UK Education for Planning Association Conference, Birmingham.
1971
Long Range Teaching - Second Educational Conference on Planning and Building for Development, Delft, Netherlands.
1970
Educational Buildings in Rural Ghana - Leerang Building in the Developing Countries of the Tropics, Rotterdam/Delft, Netherlands.
1968
Development of a Primary School Building System for Ghana: A Case Study - First Conference of the African Studies Association of the United Kingdom, Brighton.

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Patrick WAKELY

p.wakely@dpu-associates.net

Specialisation
Urban governance and management; the formulation and management of low income housing policies and programmes with emphasis on community-based participatory processes; institutional and organisational capacity building and professional training for urban development and management.
Country experience
India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Afghanistan, Cambodia, Indonesia, South Pacific; Egypt, Syria, Jordan, Yemen, Palestine (Gaza); Ghana, Liberia, Sierra Leone, Kenya, Tanzania, Sudan, South Africa, Namibia; Colombia, Jamaica.
Languages
English (mother tongue), Spanish (basic).
Educational and professional qualifications
1977
Member, Sociedad Interamericana de Planificación
1964
Associate, Royal Institute of British Architects (RIBA)
1963
AA Diploma
1963
AA Certificate in Tropical Studies


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